Neutrophils and Multiple Sclerosis

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The primary purpose of this site is to serve as a "Users' Manual" for participants in our study.


To recall, that's a study of those with "long-term" COVID-19 (LTC) and the potential utility of an intervention with light (PBM) in response to that disease entity and its findings.


To better define that "potential utility," tests are done of subjects with presumed LTC, a protocol of intervention is implemented, and tests are subsequently repeated and analyzed, looking for evidence of effectiveness of the intervention.


One such test, looks at neutrophil size and shape as a marker for differences found from control subjects, in those with LTC. That may also include as a variable, brief, moderate exercise to see what that addition adds to understanding.


But the primary focus remains making comparisons that help define the effectiveness (or lack thereof!) of an intervention with light, and as it gets applied in this study.


Not too infrequently, significant differences have appeared in neutrophil findings.

For example, between control subjects and those with LTC who have all used the light in the same way when comparisons are made. The protocol includes several different "same way(s)" if that makes sense, to allow comparisons of interventions that differ somewhat, and in a way considered important for study.


Then, one has a problem. Or if not a problem, an invitation to explain such differences.


Making other comparisons has potential use. Learning from the prior work of others adds interest, and certainly saves on time, effort and expense, compared with "starting over."

In the case of the study of neutrophil characteristics, as has been done and reported on this site, reviewing the literature can provide very useful insights about how neutrophils behave, in various clinical settings of human health and illness. 


One example of such a foray was to see how a medication with a long history of use, colchicine, relates to neutrophils and their form and function.


Here, we take the same approach, a literature review, of


multiple sclerosis and neutrophils.


The articles linked to below teach that much can and has been written (quantitatively, as well as works of quality one hopes!). But they also teach that this domaine is rather new, having only recently attracted the full attention it deserves.


If that last statement is true, it can be largely attributed to a new found level of scientific "respect" for neutrophils. Without repeateing explanations given elsewhere, an understanding of neutrophil forms, functions and interactions has moved from very basic (even if important) to much more expansive.


There have been stepping stones. For instance: detailed descriptions of neutrophil "NETS" appearing around 2004. That "new appreciation" at times seems to unfortunately also mean: much more complicated: Puzzle pieces that are hard to place: Trees in the larger Forest, that has yet to be recognized as a completed puzzle.


And, oh yes: one can get lost in the Forest.


And many of these forays lead to desciptions that at present must terminate with an explanation of findings that I phrase as: "Why? We do not know!"


As you have certainly heard: each trip begins with that first step.

We certainly hope to have selected a good destination.


Where do you hope your trip will lead to?




Some headings will be provided below to help group these references.


The links open a new tab on your system. I could have selected a "click on the back button up top on the left" method of presentation and closure, but didn't. You may have lots of browser windows to close. I hope that inflicts a minimum of suffering.


I will limit any notes or annotations to a rare indication of approval if I think a particular article merits it. Opinions may vary.

I will NOT be providing marginal notes or annotations aimed at summarizing the information provided by each article. I have other demands that I place higher on my list.

Article abstracts usually serve that function if well formulated.


Your primary interest may be different than mine, and as I expressed it above.

If what follows can serve that interest of yours, all the better!




"Basic" (but important) research articles

CXCR2 Signaling Protects Oligodendrocytes and Restricts Demyelination in a Mouse Model of Viral-Induced Demyelination


Myelin Repair Is Accelerated by Inactivating CXCR2 on Nonhematopoietic Cells


Interactions between Neutrophils, Th17 Cells, and Chemokines during the Initiation of Experimental Model of Multiple Sclerosis


Neutrophils Amplify Autoimmune Central Nervous System Infiltrates by Maturing Local APCs


Proteomic analysis reveals dysregulation of peripheral blood neutrophils in patients with Multiple Sclerosis


CXCR2-positive neutrophils are essential for cuprizone-induced demyelination__Relevance to multiple sclerosis


Multiple Phenotypic Changes Define Neutrophil Priming


Multiple Sclerosis__Myeloperoxidase Immunoradiology Improves Detection of Acute and Chronic Disease in Experimental Model


The implication of natural killer cells and neutrophils in autoimmune disorders of the central nervous system



Focusing on Neutrophils

Polymorphonuclear Cell Functional Impairment in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients__Preliminary Data


Neutrophil extracellular traps - the dark side of neutrophils


The cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS recognizes neutrophil extracellular traps


Neutrophils__Underestimated Players in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS)


The Emerging Role of Neutrophil Granulocytes in Multiple Sclerosis


The immunoregulatory abilities of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the course of multiple sclerosis



Right up our alley (and present PBM study)

The compelling link between physical activity and the body’s defense system


Skull and vertebral bone marrow are myeloid cell reservoirs for the meninges and CNS parenchyma



From benchwork, towards the clinic


Hematopoietic anomalies fuels multiple sclerosis


Low leucocyte myeloperoxidase activity in patients with multiple sclerosis


Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 expression on peripheral blood lymphocytes and neutrophils of Egyptian multiple sclerosis patients


Neutrophil-related factors as biomarkers in EAE and MS



"Neutrophil-to Lymphocyte Ratio": a frequent topic


The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is associated with multiple sclerosis


The Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio is Related to Disease Activity in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis


How Steroid Treatment Affects Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio and Neutrophil to Thrombocyte Ratio in Multiple Sclerosis


Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in COVID-19 A cheap prognostic marker in a resource constraint setting


Applicability of the Neutrophi-Lymphocyte Ratio in Behavioral Studies


High Neutrophil-lymphocyte Ratio Is a Prognostic Marker for Mortality in Severe Covid-19 and Is Associated With Elevated Age and Kidney Failure


Evaluation of lymphocyte count, T-cell subsets and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as early predictors for severity and outcome of COVID-19 disease−a report from a highly complex hospital in Brazil


With Other illnesses: Comparisons to learn from

The Role of Neutrophils in Multiple Sclerosis and Ischemic Stroke


SARS-CoV-2 Spike triggers barrier dysfunction and vascular leak via integrins and TGF-β signaling


A single-cell atlas of the peripheral immune response in patients with severe COVID-19


Global Absence and Targeting of Protective Immune States in Severe COVID-19


Severe COVID-19 Is Marked by a Dysregulated Myeloid Cell Compartment



Helicobacter pylori and MS

Association of helicobacter pylori with multiple sclerosis__Protective or risk factor


Relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and multiple sclerosis




Treatment-related articles/ sometimes labwork related


Inhibition of Human Neutrophil Functions In Vitro by Multiple Sclerosis Disease-Modifying Therapies


Changes in lymphocytes, neutrophils and immunoglobulins in year-1 cladribine treatment in multiple sclerosis


Neutropenia following immune-depletion, notably CD20 targeting, therapies in multiple sclerosis


White blood cell count profiles in multiple sclerosis during attacks before the initiation of acute and chronic treatments





Enough for now, if not too much.





>>> More on Neutrophils

>>> Neutrophil Size Changes - a study in those with LTC and Normal Controls (NC)

>>> Introduction to Neutrophil cell membrane shape changes

>>> Our neutrophil shape change results in NC and LTC subjects


Can neutrophil-related damage be moderated by other than PBM?


Here's one example that is pertinent:

>>> Lots of related info about Colchicine

And another:

>>> Neutrophils and Multiple Sclerosis (That's This Article !)






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