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On this page, several articles about neutrophils.


The goal here is to help present these White Blood Cells as more diverse in function than simply gobbling up bacteria, or forming Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETS) to capture such invaders.


I referred to this page in a presentation of results obtained from study of neutrophil size and morphology in negative controls, and subjects with "long-term" COVID-19 (LTC).

Other variables in that study included brief moderate exercise, and photobiomodulation as presented elsewhere throughout this present site. (See links below).


The selected articles should help expand one's knowledge about neutrophils and their function in human health and illness.


From one of these articles I cite some very basic but important information to carry through in one's readings on neutrophils:


"Neutrophils are short-lived (half-life 12±18 hr), postmitotic granulocytic cells that are produced in vast numbers (1 to 2 x 10^11 per day) in the bone marrow."

(from the S.Butcher et al. article on Ageing and neutrophil findings. Highlighting, mine).


The articles vary across several medical domains. But they all conclude that neutrophils have been too long ignored with respect to their heterogeneous nature and functions. Not only can each do more than gobble up bacteria to support our health. Their heterogeneity includes epigenetic responses that permit moving from one form and function to another within their short lifetime, usually measured in hours (18 to 36 hrs).


Moving through those articles that I selected, and here linked to, should help expand your thinking as it did mine. That is the goal for our purposes here, rather than presenting an exhaustive (and exhausting) review of the literature.


When articles are unavailable due to some restriction or subscription requirement, I try to place an ABSTARCT if avaialable, and as seen in what follows next below.


 L.G., Ostuni, R. & Hidalgo, A. Heterogeneity of neutrophils. Nat Rev Immunol 19, 255–265 (2019).




Structured models of ontogenic, phenotypic and functional diversity have been instrumental for a renewed understanding of the biology of immune cells, such as macrophages and lymphoid cells. However, there are no established models that can be used to define the diversity of neutrophils, the most abundant myeloid cells. This lack of an established model is largely due to the uniquely short lives of neutrophils, a consequence of their inability to divide once terminally differentiated, which has been perceived as a roadblock to functional diversity. This perception is rapidly evolving as multiple phenotypic and functional variants of neutrophils have been found, both in homeostatic and disease conditions. In this Opinion article, we present an overview of neutrophil heterogeneity and discuss possible mechanisms of diversification, including genomic regulation. We suggest that neutrophil heterogeneity is an important feature of immune pathophysiology, such that co-option of the mechanisms of diversification by cancer or other disorders contributes to disease progression.


As one can sense from the titles, some are more general, and others pertain specifically to COVID-19 and its effects on myeloid cells (cells that originate in the bone marrow, and including neutrophils).


The articles vary in complexity, as the subject and results of each vary as well.

Good reading, at your leisure !




Neutrophil chemoattractant receptors in health and disease: double-edged swords


The role of neutrophil death in chronic inflammation and cancer


Neutrophil diversity and plasticity: Implications for organ transplantation.


Neutrophil Diversity in Health and Disease


Strategies of neutrophil diversification


Current Understanding in Neutrophil Differentiation and Heterogeneity


Causes of variation in the neutrophil–lymphocyte and platelet–lymphocyte ratios: a twin-family study


A single-cell atlas of the peripheral immune response in patients with severe COVID-19


Global Absence and Targeting of Protective Immune States in Severe COVID-19


Severe COVID-19 Is Marked by a Dysregulated Myeloid Cell Compartment




"Basic" research at the lab bench


Clustered syk tyrosine kinase domains trigger phagocytosis


Myeloperoxidase-Halide-Hydrogen Peroxide Antibacterial System



Measuring Neutrophils ("Hey ! That's Us !")


Morphometry of human leukocytes



Investigation of morphometric parameters for granulocytes and lymphocytes as applied to a solution of direct and inverse light-scattering problems



A Differential Role for Cell Shape in Neutrophil Tethering



A sensitive measure of surface stress in the resting neutrophil



Puzzle Pieces

Ageing and the neutrophil: no appetite for killing


Effect of age on human neutrophil function



Integrins: Bidirectional, Allosteric Sgnaling Machines



Neutrophils & Lactate

A separate page has been devoted to this important topic,


and is found at this link.



Window shopping


Congenital Defects in Neutrophil Dynamics


Evidence for macromolecular crowding as a direct apoptotic stimulus





>>> Neutrophil Size Changes - a study in those with LTC and Normal Controls (NC)

>>> Introduction to Neutrophil cell membrane shape changes

>>> Our neutrophil shape change results in NC and LTC subjects


Can neutrophil-related damage be moderated by other than PBM?


Here's one example that is pertinent:

>>> Lots of related info about Colchicine

And another:

>>> Neutrophils and Multiple Sclerosis





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