Questions for May 20 Presentation - Q&A

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Organizing a Question & Answer Session around a specific topic, implies that

participants will be at least aware enough of the subject to have questions.


If such awareness is not in evidence, presenting enough information to get everyone up to speed may of course take up all the time allotted, leaving no time for the Questions & Answers! (We have all probably assisted at such presentations).


Giving context to this Q & A process has been presented here on another page.


Our topic is the "long-term" variety of the COVID-19 illness, caused by infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Most will be aware of that entity. This illness began more than two years ago now, so a blend of things that are known, and others still to be learned is as true for "Long COVID" as for many other illnesses.


Information obtained from our questionnaire during the last quarter of 2020, ( ...way back then), continues to provide information that is foundational to an understanding of "long-term" COVID-19.

Those results continue to correctly inform questions that might be asked today.

But "dragging out" those results is itself a full presentation.

And in fact that was already done on November 27 of 2020, at the invitation of the Ethnicity and COVID-19 Research Consortium



Pressed for Time?

(Who isn't ? ... )      


Here is a suggestion about how to solve what is essentially both an information sharing and transfer problem, paired to a problem of time constraints: Those initial results are presented in the video summary below.


Having a look ahead of time (before May 20!) may help with formalizing one or more questions.


Duration: 10 minutes, 16 seconds. To be viewed at one's leisure.

(Perhaps with notepad and pencil in hand).






The answers we'll provide to present questions should not come only out of the above results.


Of course much has been learned beyond the limits of our initial work

Related work continues. Publications on COVID-19 and 'Long COVID' or PASC are exploding in number, as Google or ResearchGate can easily confirm.


And so to make our answers more complete, representative and accurate, references and citations from the present world of "long-term" COVID-19 as found in the appropriate literature will also be offered, and compiled here into a bibliography pertinent to those questions that people have already sent in, and others will be asking.


Some questions, of course may as yet have no known answer.

Others may have a proposed answer that we are not aware of. No surprises there either.

The published literature continues to blossom and flower each day.


And finally, some answers may be "ours" and may or may not agree with the sentiments and information presented in the current literature.


Whose opinion is being offered will also be presented where that seems indicated.




Depending on when you visit this page, the following may still be incomplete.

For those who use Zotero, information has also been shared via Group Name: "Long COVID - May 20"


A free version of Zotero is available for download at this link, but citations provided here and at the linked bibliography may suffice for your needs.


Question numbering below serves only to facilitate sorting in our question database and has no other meaning.


Below, an update here will soon add the actual questions and answers, where at present, only some of these are seen.


Q n° 1.0.1  Why is it called Long Covid?

Callard, Felicity, and Elisa Perego. “How and Why Patients Made Long Covid.” Social Science & Medicine 268 (January 2021): 113426.

Q n° 2.0.1  Are women more affected than men?

Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César, José D. Martín-Guerrero, Óscar J. Pellicer-Valero, Esperanza Navarro-Pardo, Víctor Gómez-Mayordomo, María L. Cuadrado, José A. Arias-Navalón, Margarita Cigarán-Méndez, Valentín Hernández-Barrera, and Lars Arendt-Nielsen. “Female Sex Is a Risk Factor Associated with Long-Term Post-COVID Related-Symptoms but Not with COVID-19 Symptoms: The LONG-COVID-EXP-CM Multicenter Study.” Journal of Clinical Medicine 11, no. 2 (January 14, 2022): 413.
Gebhard, Caroline E., Claudia Sütsch, Susan Bengs, Manja Deforth, Karl Philipp Buehler, Nadia Hamouda, Alexander Meisel, et al. “Sex- and Gender-Specific Risk Factors of Post-COVID-19 Syndrome: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Switzerland.” Preprint. Infectious Diseases (except HIV/AIDS), July 6, 2021.

Q n° 2.0.2  What factors determine if someone will develop Long Covid?

Apple, Alexandra C., Alexis Oddi, Michael J. Peluso, Breton M. Asken, Timothy J. Henrich, J. Daniel Kelly, Samuel J. Pleasure, et al. “Risk Factors and Abnormal Cerebrospinal Fluid Associate with Cognitive Symptoms after Mild COVID ‐19.” Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology 9, no. 2 (February 2022): 221–26.
Chen, Chen, Spencer R. Haupert, Lauren Zimmermann, Xu Shi, Lars G. Fritsche, and Bhramar Mukherjee. “Global Prevalence of Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) or Long COVID: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review.” Preprint. Epidemiology, November 16, 2021.

Su, Y., Yuan, D., Chen, D.G., Ng, R.H., Wang, K., Choi, J., Li, S., Hong, S., Zhang, R., Xie, J., Kornilov, S.A., Scherler, K., Pavlovitch-Bedzyk, A.J., Dong, S., Lausted, C., Lee, I., Fallen, S., Dai, C.L., Baloni, P., Smith, B., Duvvuri, V.R., Anderson, K.G., Li, J., Yang, F., Duncombe, C.J., McCulloch, D.J., Rostomily, C., Troisch, P., Zhou, J., Mackay, S., DeGottardi, Q., May, D.H, Taniguchi, R., Gittelman, R.M, Klinger, M., Snyder, T.M, Roper, R., Wojciechowska, G., Murray, K., Edmark, R., Evans, S., Jones, L., Zhou, Y., Rowen, L., Liu, R., Chour, W., Algren, H.A, Berrington, W.R., Wallick, J.A., Cochran, R.A., Micikas, M.E., the ISB-Swedish COVID19 Biobanking Unit, Terr

Wrin, Petropoulos, C.J., Cole, H.R., Fischer, T.D., Wei, W., Hoon, D.S.B., Price, N.D., Subramanian, N., Hill, J.A, Hadlock, J., Magis, A.T., Ribas, A., Lanier, L.L., Boyd, S.D., Bluestone, J.A., Chu, H., Hood, L., Gottardo, R., Greenberg, P.D., Davis, M.M., Goldman, J.D., Heath, J.R., Multiple Early Factors Anticipate Post-Acute COVID-19 Sequelae, Cell (2022), doi:


Q n° 2.2.1  From your experience, why are BAME/people of colour mostly affected by Covid19? And is this also the same for Long Covid?

Abuelgasim, Eyad, Li Jing Saw, Manasi Shirke, Mohamed Zeinah, and Amer Harky. “COVID-19: Unique Public Health Issues Facing Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic Communities.” Current Problems in Cardiology 45, no. 8 (August 2020): 100621.
Amram, Ofer, Jeanne Robison, Solmaz Amiri, Bethann Pflugeisen, John Roll, and Pablo Monsivais. “Socioeconomic and Racial Inequities in Breast Cancer Screening During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Washington State.” JAMA Network Open 4, no. 5 (May 24, 2021): e2110946.
Andrist, Erica, Mark Nuppnau, Ryan P. Barbaro, Thomas S. Valley, and Michael W. Sjoding. “Association of Race With Pulse Oximetry Accuracy in Hospitalized Children.” JAMA Network Open 5, no. 3 (March 31, 2022): e224584.
Cooper, Lisa A., and David R. Williams. “Excess Deaths From COVID-19, Community Bereavement, and Restorative Justice for Communities of Color.” JAMA 324, no. 15 (October 20, 2020): 1491.
Dryden-Peterson, Scott, Gustavo E. Velásquez, Thomas J. Stopka, Sonya Davey, Shahin Lockman, and Bisola O. Ojikutu. “Disparities in SARS-CoV-2 Testing in Massachusetts During the COVID-19 Pandemic.” JAMA Network Open 4, no. 2 (February 9, 2021): e2037067.
Feldman, Justin M., and Mary T. Bassett. “Variation in COVID-19 Mortality in the US by Race and Ethnicity and Educational Attainment.” JAMA Network Open 4, no. 11 (November 23, 2021): e2135967.
Fu, Julie, Sonya A. Reid, Benjamin French, Cassandra Hennessy, Clara Hwang, Na Tosha Gatson, Narjust Duma, et al. “Racial Disparities in COVID-19 Outcomes Among Black and White Patients With Cancer.” JAMA Network Open 5, no. 3 (March 28, 2022): e224304.
Galea, Sandro. “Reckoning With COVID-19 Exceptionalism.” JAMA Health Forum 2, no. 12 (December 9, 2021): e214854.
Lopez, Leo, Louis H. Hart, and Mitchell H. Katz. “Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities Related to COVID-19.” JAMA 325, no. 8 (February 23, 2021): 719.
Mah, Jasmine C., and Melissa K. Andrew. “Social Vulnerability Indices: A Pragmatic Tool for COVID-19 Policy and Beyond.” The Lancet Regional Health - Europe 14 (March 2022): 100333.
Mody, Aaloke, Kristin Pfeifauf, and Elvin H. Geng. “Using Lorenz Curves to Measure Racial Inequities in COVID-19 Testing.” JAMA Network Open 4, no. 1 (January 8, 2021): e2032696.
Musshafen, Leslie A., Lamees El-Sadek, Seth T. Lirette, Richard L. Summers, Caroline Compretta, and Thomas E. Dobbs. “In-Hospital Mortality Disparities Among American Indian and Alaska Native, Black, and White Patients With COVID-19.” JAMA Network Open 5, no. 3 (March 30, 2022): e224822.
Sacarny, Adam, and Jamie R. Daw. “Inequities in COVID-19 Vaccination Rates in the 9 Largest US Cities.” JAMA Health Forum 2, no. 9 (September 3, 2021): e212415.

Q n° 3.0.1  Are there reports about Long Covid in children following Covid-19 infections?

STAT. “As More Kids Go down the ‘Deep, Dark Tunnel’ of Long Covid, Doctors Still Can’t Predict Who Is at Risk,” June 10, 2021.
Brackel, Caroline, Coen Lap, Emmeline Buddingh, Marlies Houten, Linda van der Sande, Eveline Langereis, Michiel Bannier, Marielle Pijnenburg, Simone Hashimoto, and Suzanne Terheggen-Lagro. “Pediatric Long-COVID: An Overlooked Phenomenon?” Pediatric Pulmonology 56 (June 8, 2021).
Buonsenso, Danilo, Daniel Munblit, Cristina De Rose, Dario Sinatti, Antonia Ricchiuto, Angelo Carfi, and Piero Valentini. “Preliminary Evidence on Long COVID in Children.” Acta Paediatrica 110, no. 7 (July 2021): 2208–11.
Fainardi, Valentina, Aniello Meoli, Giulia Chiopris, Matteo Motta, Kaltra Skenderaj, Roberto Grandinetti, Andrea Bergomi, Francesco Antodaro, Stefano Zona, and Susanna Esposito. “Long COVID in Children and Adolescents.” Life 12 (February 14, 2022): 285.
———. “Long COVID in Children and Adolescents.” Life 12 (February 14, 2022): 285.
Thallapureddy, Keerthi, Khyathi Thallapureddy, Erika Zerda, Neeraj Suresh, Deepak Kamat, Karthik Rajasekaran, and Alvaro Moreira. “Long-Term Complications of COVID-19 Infection in Adolescents and Children.” Current Pediatrics Reports 10 (March 1, 2022): 3.

Q n° 7.0.1  What about vaccination and LTC?

Al-Aly, Ziyad, Benjamin Bowe, and Yan Xie. “Long Covid after Breakthrough COVID-19: The Post-Acute Sequelae of Breakthrough COVID-19.” Preprint. In Review, November 15, 2021.
Yale Medicine. “Comparing the COVID-19 Vaccines: How Are They Different?” Accessed April 12, 2022.
“In Rare Cases, Coronavirus Vaccines May Cause Long Covid–like Symptoms.” Accessed April 12, 2022.
Seneff, Stephanie, and Greg Nigh. “Worse Than the Disease? Reviewing Some Possible Unintended Consequences of the MRNA Vaccines Against COVID-19,” n.d., 42.
Seneff, Stephanie, Greg Nigh, Anthony M. Kyriakopoulos, and Peter A McCullough. “Innate Immune Suppression by SARS-CoV-2 MRNA Vaccinations: The Role of G-Quadruplexes, Exosomes and MicroRNAs.” Preprint. Preprints, January 21, 2022.
———. “Innate Immune Suppression by SARS-CoV-2 MRNA Vaccinations: The Role of G-Quadruplexes, Exosomes and MicroRNAs.” Preprint. Preprints, January 21, 2022.
Healthline. “What You Need To Know About AstraZeneca vs Pfizer Vaccine,” August 22, 2021.
Wisnivesky, Juan P., Usha Govindarajulu, Emilia Bagiella, Ruchir Goswami, Minal Kale, Kirk N. Campbell, Kristin Meliambro, Zijian Chen, Judith A. Aberg, and Jenny J. Lin. “Association of Vaccination with the Persistence of Post-COVID Symptoms.” Journal of General Internal Medicine, March 9, 2022.
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